Treaty Of Lausanne 1923
The treaty of Lausanne was signed on July 24, 1923, in Lausanne, Switzerland. It’s been 98 years since this treaty was signed. This treaty is known to be the final treaty during the end of World War 1. On one side, representatives of Turkey (the Ottoman Empire’s successor) signed it; on the other, representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) signed it.
The Treaty of Lausanne resulted in international acknowledgment of the fledgling Republic of Turkey’s sovereignty as the Ottoman Empire’s successor state. The Ottoman public debt was shared between Turkey and the countries that arose from the former Ottoman Empire as a result of the Treaty.
Ismet Inonu, the victorious commander of the Turkish national forces, led the Turkish delegation to Lausanne. Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and Serbo-Croatia were among the countries represented at the peace talks. Later in the treaty negotiations, Russia, Belgium, and Portugal joined to examine the status of the Turkish straits and financial concerns relating to the former Ottoman Empire. As an observer, the United States participated in the treaty discussions.
The talks started on November 21, 1922, and they continued for eight months. Turkey’s principal concerns were to have its borders recognized as specified by the National Pact of 1920, gain control of the Turkish Straits, and put an end to the capitulations.
The Turkish borders were recognized internationally at the end of the meeting, with particular provisions in place for Iskenderun and Mosul. Iskenderun’s status was later decided by a local referendum, and the province entered Turkey’s borders legally on June 23, 1939. Mosul, on the other hand, remained outside Turkey’s boundaries and was annexed by Iraq. The Turkish straits were given to Turkey with unique measures to govern international economic traffic and rights by Black Sea littoral countries, which were defined in the Montreux Treaty on July 20, 1936. The Treaty of Lausanne will end in 2023.
Loss of Turkey after ‘Treaty of Lausanne’ 1923
After this treaty, it was decided that Turkey would be no longer an Islamic state, and it was to be made a secular state. All the assets of the last Caliph or his family were to be seized and Caliph along with his family was sent to exile. Turkey was prohibited to dig its oil and natural resources, and it had to import the oil from other countries.
A naturally occurring strait The Bosporus is a major international waterway in Turkey’s northern region. It serves as a natural border between Europe and Asia and regulates international trade. It was recognized internationally in the Lausanne Treaty, which means that Turkey cannot levy taxes on ships passing through this canal.
Turkish Empire was a superpower that ruled almost 80% of the world under the Ottoman’s leadership was no longer a superpower anymore.
Erdogan remarks on 98th anniversary of Treaty of Lausanne
Last month on the 98th anniversary of the treaty, on July 24, 1923, President Erdogan said that We are determined and waiting for 2023 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the treaty as a more powerful and prosperous country economically, diplomatically, military, and politically. He also added that Turkey continues to eradicate the treacherous and harmful ambitions against the well-being of the Nation, its peace, and integrity.
He further said that Turkey’s “important victories” in various domains, including Syria, Libya, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the battle against terrorism, are the “clearest proof of our commitment to preserving our country’s rights and interests.”
In any of these battlegrounds, Turkey will not yield to some circles like the language of threats, intimidation, and blackmailing and will continue to defend its international law-based rights.
After the end of the ‘Treaty of Lausanne’ (2023)
As per the International Law in 2023 Treaty of Lausanne is going to end. International Law clearly states that no treaty can be implemented or remain for 100 or more than 100 years.
Turkey despite having too many restrictions because of this treaty progressed well over the years, after the end of this treaty New era or Turkey will begin as many of the restrictions which were put on them will be lifted. Turkey can emerge as a great force once again.
After this Treaty Turkey will no longer have to import oil from other countries, since the industrial revolution, oil has been the world’s most vital source of energy. Its products are essential to modern life since they provide energy to the power industry, heat homes, and fuel for automobiles and airplanes. Many Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, rely primarily on oil exports to survive.
Turkey, unfortunately, is unable to dig for its oil due to a prohibition in the Lausanne Treaty. It was forced to import oil from other countries, which was quite expensive. After the embargo on Turkey is lifted in 2023, Turkey will be able to explore and drill its oil, reducing its reliance on other countries. Turkey may be able to export oil if sufficient reserves are discovered. Oil export revenue will increase the country’s GDP.
As Turkey was prohibited to impose the taxes on Bosphorus strait, after the end of this treaty (2023) Turkish government once again will be able to impose taxes on the Bosphorus strait which will bring a rapid change in their well progressed economy.
The Bosporus Strait regulates global trade. Every day, hundreds of ships sail across this strait. This strait has been designated as an international waterway. Turkey is unable to force its will on the ships. Turkey will be authorized to levy fees on ships crossing the Bosporus strait after 2023. Turkey is contemplating a project to connect the Black Sea with the Marmora Sea, intending to improve traffic flow in the Bosporus.
Another interesting thing, which might become controversial, is that Turkey will be able to make its claims over the territory of Makkah and Medina.
Turkey has the right to claim territory in Saudi Arabia, Libya, and Egypt. Iraqi Sudan Cyprus and the Levant are two countries in the Middle East. Turkey has the right to claim the holy towns of Makkah and Madinah. Mustafa Kemal Pasha set Islam aside after World War I. He declared Turkey a secular state and outlawed the scarf. In Turkey, Islam is practiced by 95 percent of the population. Turkey’s status should be changed to Islam, according to Tayyip Erdogan. Erdogan aspires to be the Muslim world’s leader and expand his sphere of influence in the Middle East. For this, he took several initiatives, including converting Hagia Sophia into a Mosque.
If Turkey is granted custody of Makkah and Madina, Tayyip Erdogan’s ambition to govern the Muslim world may be realized. Taking custody of Makkah and Madinah from Saudi Arabia will be a difficult undertaking for Turkey.
The end of the treaty is also one of the major reasons for the instability in the middle-east. From 2023 onwards Turkey will be once again operating as it used to a century ago, which has permeated the tensions among the countries like Saudi, UAE, and Israel. The future politics of middle-east seems to be unpredictable