The word Israel comes from the son of Abraham “Jacob or Yaqoob” who was renamed “Israel” by Hebrew God in the Bible. Israelites are the descendants of Jacob.
From 1517 till world war 1, Israel was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire collapsed in World war 1, the area fell under the control of the British.
During the World war, the foreign minister of British Balfour decided to build an independent nation for the Jews. This agreement was known as the Balfour declaration. Within Jews, a Zionist movement started which demanded the formation of a new state for the Jewish community. Zionists believed that Judaism is more than a religion, it’s a nationality. Jews from all over the world migrated to Palestine in the hope of a new homeland. When world war 2 broke out, European Jews were massacred by Nazi Germans. This genocide was known as the Holocaust. In order to keep themselves safe, Jews from Europe flew to Palestine and came under the protection of the British. After the Germans defeated in world war 2, a significant population of Palestine consisted of Jews.
The conflict between Arab and Jews dates all the way back to ancient times. Jerusalem is a sacred city for both Muslims and Jews. It contains the Temple Mount, which includes the holy sites al-Aqsa Mosque, the Western Wall, the Dome of the Rock. After world war 2, Tensions between Arabs and Jews were getting severe day by day.
To find a permanent solution for the problem of conflict between Muslims and Jews, the British along with the support of the United Nations decided to divide Palestine into two. One would be for the Arabs and a new state for the Jewish community which was named Israel. According to the plan, Jerusalem was declared an international zone and would be under the direct control of the United Nations, as this City is equally important for the Jews and the Muslims. Obviously, this plan was accepted by the Jewish community, as they would have their own homeland after almost 1000 years. But Arabs opposed the idea, as this plan could enfeeble the identity of Arabs in Palestine.
This idea was proposed by United Kingdom in the UN. In order to pass the resolution, a two-thirds majority was required.
At that time 56 countries were the member of the United Nations, 33 countries voted in favor of Israel which included the United States and the Soviet, 13 countries voted against the proposal which included Saudi Arab and Pakistan. 10 countries including China abstained from voting. Finally, the proposal was accepted and Israelites declared independence as the state of Israel.
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Arab-Israel war 1948:
Arab countries made a union and decided to wage a war against Israel. Arabs union included Jordon, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria. Surprisingly Israel turned victorious by defeating the union. When the war started the Arab Union had an upper hand over Israel Army, but the United Nations security council intervened and announced a ceasefire for five weeks. Israel took the opportunity and imported military weapons from Mexico and strengthen its strategic position. When the ceasefire ended, Israel Army fought at three different fronts and eventually succeeded in capturing more land than previously allocated by the united nations.
The conflict triggered significant demographic change throughout the Middle East. Around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes in the area that became Israel, and they became Palestinian refugees in what they refer to as Al-Nakba (“the catastrophe”). In the three years following the war, about 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel
Arab union signed an armistice with Israel, under this armistice agreement, a new line was demarcated between Israel and its neighbor which was known as Green Line. West bank became a part of Jordon and Gaza Strip became annexed with Egyptian territory.
Suez Canal is a waterway that connects the red sea with the Mediterranean Sea. The Canal defines the boundary between Asia and Africa. With this canal, the distance between London and the Arabian sea reduces by 9000-kilometers. Until 1956, the Suez Canal was controlled by France and Britain. In 1956 president of Egypt, Gamal Abdul Naser captured the canal and nationalized it. Israel with the help of Britain and France tried to recapture the canal by force. After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations-led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasir.
Arab-Israel war 1967 (6 days war):
Another war broke out between Arab and Israel. The war lasted for six days only. Initially, Egypt and Syria were able to capture a significant land of Israel. The United States came to rescue Israel. Within a short period, Israel was able to capture the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip from Egypt, Golan Heights from Syria, and the west bank from Jordon. Israel was now occupying Palestine, including all of Jerusalem and its holy sites. These areas were considered illegal occupations by Israel.
Israel Settlements in Palestine:
After capturing the west bank and the Gaza strip, the Israeli government motivated its citizen to shift to the west bank to convert it into a Jewish majority area. Israel Government announced special subsidies for the settlers. The Israeli housing ministry developed a plan on how to develop the west bank. United nations condemned the settlement of Israel in the west bank. Despite the international condemnation, more settlers moved to the West bank.
Yom Kippur War / Egyptian peace with Israel:
To recapture the land occupied by Israel, Egypt and Syria carried out a joint war against Israel on the holy day of Jews YOM KIPPUR. The war was to capture the Sinai Peninsula and Golan height. The United States supported Israel and supplied weapons to it. As a response, Member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo against the state which were supporting Israel, which simply means that cut their oil supplies to supporters of Israel.
This led to a massive 400 percent increase in oil prices in the united states. Their aim was to pull back Israel from the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. All this went in vain. So in 1979, Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel. According to the treaty, the Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt. The Egypt–Israel treaty was signed by Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and witnessed by United States president Jimmy Carter.
First Palestinian Intifada:
Intifada in English means “Uprising”. In 1987 protests against Israel Settlements by Palestinian Liberation Organization gained momentum. Hundreds of Palestinians were killed during the uprising. Due to violence and condemnation by the international community a peace agreement, known as the Oslo Peace Accords signed between Israel Prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestinian Liberation Organization leader Yassir Arafat. This agreement divides the west bank into three sections,
Section 1 would be under the direct control of the Palestinian liberation organization
Section 2 would be under Israel control
Section 3 would be controlled by the Palestinian government but the security would be managed by Israeli forces
Second Palestinian Intifada:
Another Intifada was launched in 2000 in the Gaza strip. This time it was more violent than the first one. Palestinians launched suicide bombs and other attacks on Israelis in 2000. The resulting violence lasted for years until a cease-fire was reached. Israel announced a plan to remove all troops and Jewish settlements from the Gaza strip by the end of 2005.